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Why do the Big Bang Theory and the Steady State Theory regard the universe as expanding?

By Glenn Borchardt on Apr 10, 2019 04:00 am
PSI Blog 20190410 Why do the Big Bang Theory and the Steady State Theory regard the universe as expanding?

Abhishek Chakravartty asks:

“Can you explain how both the BBT and SST rely on Einstein’s “Untired Light Theory” to interpret the cosmological redshift as evidence for an expanding universe?”

This is what I wrote in IUT:

“By 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered enough galaxies to establish that the degree of redshift also was a rough inverse function of their luminosity, which is a measure of their distance… His greatest mistake was to promote Slipher’s speculation that this cosmological redshift always was due to the Doppler Effect. The title of his famous 1929 introductory paper says it all: “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae.””

In other words, he initially assumed the cosmological redshift and the Doppler Effect were one and the same. But the Doppler Effect only occurs in a medium. Einstein had removed that possibility by his temporary rejection of aether. A single particle could not have such an effect. Nonetheless, regressive physicists and cosmogonists accepted Einstein’s eight ad hocs.[1]Both BBT and SST assumed that light was a particle instead of what it really is: a wave in a sea of particles.

Now, the Doppler Effect only occurs when the source of the wave vibrations in a medium is moving. When it moves toward you, wave lengths are shortened; when it moves away from you wave lengths are lengthened. Light from the galaxy Andromeda, for instance, is blue shifted because Andromeda is moving toward us. The light from most distant galaxies, however, is redshifted. If the Doppler Effect was the cause,[2]then these galaxies would be receding from us. Both SST and BBT accept this as the correct interpretation, with the astounding implication the universe is expanding in all directions at once.

But according to Infinite Universe Theory, the redshift measurements (z) obtained by astronomers are the results of at least three different causes:

1.  The Doppler Effect (DE)
2.  The gravitational redshift (GR)
3.  The cosmological redshift (CR)

The simplified equation for these measurements would have to be something like this:

z = DE + GR + CR        (1)

DE, the Doppler Effect, is a function of velocity. Light sources moving from us have a plus velocity, thus producing a redshift; light sources moving away from us have a minus velocity, thus reflecting a blueshift. Because light from Andromeda is blueshifted, this factor results in a negative z. Andromeda is relatively close to us, the other factors produce relatively insignificant contributions to the measured z. In an infinite universe, half the cosmological objects would be moving away from us, and half would be moving toward us.[3] Half would yield redshifts and half would yield blueshifts. That is not observed because at least two other causes producing redshifting are involved:

GR, the gravitational redshift, is a function of the mass of the source. In wave mechanics, ascribed to here, wave velocity is a property of the medium. According to Infinite Universe Theory, aetherial pressure increases with distance from baryonic (ordinary) matter. The increasing aetherial pressure causes the velocity of light to increase with distance from a source. This causes the distance between waves to increase—a redshift. GR is particularly great for quasars, which are massive cosmological objects—possibly former nuclei of galaxies. Quasars are known for these high z values despite their brightness, which is otherwise a measure of distance. The z measurements for quasars tend to be overwhelmed by the GR.

CR, the cosmological redshift, is a function of distance, although cosmogonists interpret the preponderance of redshift over blue shift in z measurements as indicating “recessional velocity.” In that interpretation CR and DE are one and the same. The claim is that most light sources in the universe are going away from us if the DE was the only phenomenon producing the z measurements. Miraculously, we would be at the center of a universal expansion. This makes no sense, especially in view of the fact that over two trillion galaxies have been observed. Those data are better support for Infinite Universe Theory than for Big Bang Theory, which hypothesizes universal expansion from a tiny mathematical “singularity.” All these extraordinary claims are based upon Special Relativity Theory (light is a particle) and General Relativity Theory (the universe is 4-dimensional “space-time”). The Doppler Effect occurs only in a medium. The idea that a single particle could send DE information from galaxy to eyeball is absurd. The eight ad hocs Einstein used to revive the particle theory also are absurd. As shown by Sagnac, light must be a wave in the aether.

Although aether is a superior medium for wave transmission, it is not a perfect one. The replication of waves through a medium cannot be perfect. A tiny portion of the motion of the particles constituting the wave within the medium fails to be involved in the formation of a second wave. We see this sluggishness as an increase in the distance between subsequent waves (Figure 1). The effect follows from Newton’s First Law of Motion and the Second Law of Thermodynamics in which isolated systems only can lose motion; they cannot gain motion without collisions from some outside the system. Again, for aether this “tired light effect” is significant only over great distances.

Figure 1. Waves in a medium exhibiting redshifting over distance (Borchardt, 2017[4], Figure 12).

In physics lingo the conventional equation for the z for light from any source is:

z = (λobs-λemited)/λemited   (2)

Taking into account all three causes for redshifts, we get:

    z = (λobs- λemited)/ λemited + (dm λemited)/K       (3)


z = measured redshift
λobs = observed wavelength due to motion of source, m
λemited = wavelength of light emitted from source, m
d = distance to source, m
m = mass of source, g
K = constant, gm2

Again, note that equation 3 first includes the usual Doppler Effect found for all emitting objects in motion. As mentioned, its contribution to z can be plus if the object is going away or minus if it is going toward the observer.

To the Doppler Effect we must add the (dm λemited)/K portion of equation 3 to show that the emitted wave length is increased as a function of distance to the source and its mass. The constant, K, presently is unknown, but must be in terms of mass (g) and distance squared (m) for the second term to be unitless like the z term.

The upshot is this: The expanding universe interpretation is based on the particle theory of light. Both BBT and SST assumed light was a particle. Once we finally realize light is wave motion in the aether, the Big Bang Theory and its contradictions will disappear.

[1] Einstein’s eight ad hocs (Borchardt, 2017, Table 6).
Unlike other particles, his light particle always traveled at the same velocity—it never slowed down.
Unlike other particles, it attained this velocity instantaneously when emitted from a source.
Unlike other particles, it would not take on the velocity of its source.
Unlike other particles, it was massless.
Unlike other particles, light particles did not lose motion when they collided with other light particles.
Unlike other particles, any measurement indicating light speed was not constant had to be attributed to “time dilation”—another especially egregious ad hoc.
Time was to be considered something other than motion, for motion cannot dilate.
The claim light speed was constant flew in the face of all other measurements showing there are no constants in nature because everything is always in motion. Because the universe is infinite, every measurement of every so-called “constant” always has a plus or minus. The velocities for wave motion in any medium are dependent on the properties of that medium, which vary from place to place.

[2] As instruments improved, the redshift measurements for distant galaxies became so great that calculated “recession velocities” were greater than the speed of light. To remove this absurdity, cosmogonists were unable to use only the Doppler explanation and subsequently were forced to invent the “expanding space” ad hoc. Perfectly empty space, of course, cannot expand. This is where “dark energy” came into play. Conceived as magical, matterless motion, it nonetheless was deemed responsible for pushing galaxies apart in violation of the Fourth Assumption of Science, inseparability (Just as there is no motion without matter, so there is no matter without motion).
[3] Note this hypothesis would be confirmed if half the distant redshifts decreased and half increased over time.
[4] Borchardt, Glenn, 2017, Infinite Universe Theory: Berkeley, California, Progressive Science Institute, 349 p. [].

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