Identity and Social Exclusion

Identities are evolving and dynamic. To understand how identity informs marginalisation, we need to be cognizant about how they are formed, how they interact, and how they shape ones experiences. While the interaction between a particular aspect of ones identity and exclusion can be context specific, what is perhaps more pervasive is how the interaction between several aspects of ones identity shape and reshape your experience of exclusion and marginalisation.

In this edition we explore the possible ways in which we can capture this element of intersecting identities, and it's impact at the margins. We look at the existing literature that has captured the impact of socio-economic factors on social exclusion, and explore if similar theoretical settings can also reveal information about intersection of identities and it's marginal impact on exclusion and marginalisation when applied to existing census and survey data. While a lot of studies exist each covering very important aspects of identity and exclusion and marginalisation: social capital, violence, stigma and ostracisation, we attempt to put together a coherent  narrative bringing all of these aspects together to have a more comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon in general. 

To understand the theoretical modeling of social exclusion, we show how a particular class of models (multinomial models) has been used to study different aspects of identity and marginalisation. For those interested in conducting research on identity in India, we also collate a few data sources and identify possible research questions they can answer. 
Existing literature on identity and social exclusion
Social exclusion and school participation in India: Expanding access with equity: The paper uses data from secondary sources to explore the  dimensions and issues related to exclusion from education and the policies and actions required to make educational expansion more equitable. It looks at which groups are excluded from education based on drop-out rates. Read the paper here.
Social Exclusion, Poverty and Discrimination Towards an Analytical Framework: The paper identifies the different kinds of disadvantage which underpin social exclusion, and goes on to analyse social exclusion as the product of institutional processes, group dynamics and social practices. Read the paper here
The Measurement of Social Exclusion: The paper develops an axiomatic approach to the measurement of social exclusion. At the individual level, social exclusion is viewed in terms of deprivation of the person concerned with respect to different functionings in the society. Read the paper here.
Meeting Boundaries: Exploring the Faces of Social Inclusion beyond Mental Health Systems: This article examines social inclusion in the context of the deinstitutionalisation of mental health care. It draws on a scientific evaluation of the Belgian reform of mental health care (2010), designed to assess the influence of organisational mechanisms on the social and care trajectories of service users. The findings highlight the ongoing challenge for mental health systems to support the inclusion of service users within the community, and the increasingly difficult access to mental health care for people with complex and chronic mental health problems. Read the article here
Digital Divide or Digital Opportunity? The Role of Technology in Overcoming Social Exclusion in U.S. Education: The article examines both current patterns of exclusion from education and technology alongside the range of ongoing policies and initiatives established in the United States concerned with technology and education. The article then discusses the issues and problems faced by U.S. educationalists and policy makers in proactively using technology as a means of reducing social exclusion in lifelong education. Read the article here
Forced Migration, Social Exclusion and Poverty: Introduction: The article focuses specifically on the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers. Application of contemporary constructions of relative poverty and social exclusion to understanding asylum and humanitarian refuge emphasises the relative financial and social disadvantages experienced by many of these forced migrants, which may lead subsequently to them having negative experiences of resettlement and poor mental health and overall wellbeing. Read the article here
Social exclusion and inclusion of young immigrants: Presentation of an analytical framework:  In this article, the author focuses on social exclusion in different arenas, thus underlining the multi-dimensional aspect of social exclusion. The underlying questions are: ‘What is it that contributes to social exclusion of young adult immigrants in different social settings?’ and ‘How do young adult immigrants with different backgrounds experience social exclusion in different social arenas?’. Read the article here
Social exclusion and gender: Does one size fit all?:  This article enquires into the gender implications of some of the core elements of social exclusion paradigms, questions whether an integrated approach works for gender, and argues that feminist research and gender analysis offer both better situated understandings of the character and experience of marginality, and useful insights for the emerging applications of social exclusion frameworks to developing countries. Read the article here

View previous editions of the newsletter on our website

Spotlight: The use of multinomial logit models to study identity

Approaches to Measuring Social Exclusion: This paper used binomial and multinomial models to analyse the impact of socio‐cultural factors on civic participation and on different types of associational membership, and tests the thesis of across‐the‐board decline in social capital by Putnam (2000) and that of rising levels of middle‐class social capital versus consistent low levels of working‐class social capital by Hall (1999). Read the paper here
An Analysis on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey: Multinomial Logit Model: The paper conducts an empirical analysis of the socio-economic factors resulting in domestic violence against women using a multinomial logit model. Read the paper here
Age, Sex, Race, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation: Intersectionality of Marginalized-Group Identities and Enacted HIV-Related Stigma Among People Living with HIV in Florida: The paper talks about how interaction between identities impacts the experience of stigma attached to AIDS. In multinomial regression models, the interaction between race and ethnicity was found to be significant where non-White Latinos had higher odds of experiencing high levels of enacted stigma compared to white non-Latinos. Read the paper here
Social capital and social exclusion in England and Wales (1972–1999): The paper talks about how interaction between identities impacts the experience of stigma attached to AIDS. In multinomial regression models, the interaction between race and ethnicity was found to be significant where non-White Latinos had higher odds of experiencing high levels of enacted stigma compared to white non-Latinos. Read the paper here

Studying exclusion in India using secondary data: Data sources and possible research hypotheses

Data Source: Socio-Economic Caste Census (2011) 

Description: SECC-2011 is a study of socio economic status of rural and urban households which allows ranking of households based on predefined parameters. The website is here

Using the data to study exclusion: The SECC defines criteria to determine whether households should be included in the survey, and collects data on deprivation for households that are surveyed. The data is useful for looking at percentages of people from various identity groups that are excluded from the survey, as well as analysing the deprivation data in detail.

Data Source: National Family Health Survey (NFHS)

Description: The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. Four and a half rounds of the survey have been conducted since the first survey in 1992-93. The website is here

Using the data to study exclusion: Since the NFHS collects information on religion and caste, the dataset can be used to explore exclusion from healthcare and family planning services for women from different identity groups 

Data Source: District Information System for Education (DISE) data

Description: DISE provides time-series data at school, village, cluster, block and district levels. It includes data on school location, management, rural urban, enrolment, buildings, equipment, teachers, incentives, medium of instruction, examination results and student flows. Also includes detailed data on individual teachers, para-teachers and community teachers and their profile. The website is here

Using the data to study exclusion: This dataset can be useful for exploring educational exclusion in more detail. As an example - one could try to compare the quality of schools in villages or districts with a higher share of population belonging to disadvantaged groups, and compare with schools in villages or districts with a higher share of population belonging to relatively well off groups. 

Featured photographs have been taken by Cristina Mittermeier, a photographer and marine biologist who for the past 25 years has been working as a writer, conservationist and photographer. You can see more of her photographs on her website

Jobs and Calls for Papers

Note: These are jobs shared by members over WhatsApp over the last 2 weeks. Please check if positions are still open before applying. If you are thinking about applying to one of these, you can also drop a message on the WhatsApp group or on the google group  to connect with members currently working in these organisations.
1. Call for Papers/Proposals
  1. The Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) Delhi Centre with IWWAGE is organising a Women in the Economy workshop on 11-13 March 2021. The workshop is intended for advanced women Ph.D. students, Ph.D. graduates in the past 5-8 years, including current Post-doctoral fellows and junior faculty. Applied papers on any topic may be submitted.
  2. Evidence-based Measures of Empowerment for Research on Gender Equality (EMERGE) is calling for proposals for the development, implementation, and psychometric testing of novel social norms measures. Proposals are due by 5:00 p.m. IST on Friday, April 2, 2021.
2. Fellowships: 
  1. Education Impact Leadership Program (EILP) at the Central Square Foundation (CSF)
  2. Legal Fellowship Program and the Fellowship on Economic and Environmental Justice at the South Asia Women Foundation India (SAWF IN)
3.  Internships:
  1. Dalberg, India: Dalberg Asia is hiring Undergraduate Interns for their Mumbai & New Delhi offices. 
  2. Centre for Policy Research (CPR) is looking to recruit a Communications Intern for the Chairman’s Office.
4. Laterite is looking to hire a Research Associate based in their Amsterdam or Kigali office. More information about the job is available here

5. Centre for Social and Economic Progress (CSEP) seeks to hire an early career economist who is well versed and experienced with the theoretical underpinnings of econometric techniques, quantitative analysis, modelling, etc. as used in applied work. 

6. International Innovation Corps (IIC) is seeking a Research Associate to support the work of its Data and Technology vertical, at a project with the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY) in New Delhi. More information is here

7. Youth Ki Awaaz is looking for a Policy Programs Manager with a focus on climate change, forest and energy-related policy frameworks in India. 

8. Swaniti Initiative is looking to hire a Senior Project Manager - Policy. More information is here

9. IIM Lucknow is looking to hire a Research Assistant/ Research Associate to provide support to the research work in field of Finance. More information is here.
This newsletter was put together by Madhukari Mishra, Sharvari Ravishankar, and Prerna Kundu. 
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