FUNDING OPPORTUNITY: Call for Training Grants, 2021-2022 (1 week left!)
PacVec has released our 4th annual call for training grant proposals. Proposals are due Thursday, March 18, 2021 by 11:59 pm PDT. Proposals are invited from investigators at academic institutions within the following states and territories: California, Nevada, Arizona, Hawaii, Utah, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Idaho, and the US-affiliated Pacific Islands. For more information, please click HERE.
Diversity of rickettsiae in domestic, synanthropic, and sylvatic mammals and their ectoparasites in a spotted fever‐epidemic region at the western US‐Mexico border
Over one hundred cases of human rickettsiosis, many fatal, are reported annually across the US‐Mexico transboundary region, representing a likely undercounting of the total disease burden. Although cases are often attributed to Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, multiple other rickettsial pathogens are present in North America. In a new study, UC Davis postdoctoral scholarAndrés M. López‐Pérez and colleagues led by PacVec investigator Dr. Janet Foley conducted multi‐host surveillance of domestic, synanthropic, and sylvatic mammals and their ectoparasites to investigate the ecology of Rickettsia species in this region. A total of 499 mammals, including 83 dogs, 23 wild carnivores, five lagomorphs, and 388 rodents were sampled, and 413 fleas and 447 ticks belonging to 15 and 4 species, respectively, were collected during 2017 and 2018. The team detected Rickettsia species DNA in one blood sample of coyote (Canis latrans), 11 ear tissues of rodents (10.6%), and 79 ectoparasites, including fleas and ticks (9.5%). This study also points to the need for more multiple‐host and vector eco‐epidemiological studies framed by a One Health approach to better understand disease in this RMSF‐epidemic region [full article].
Meet our current training grant recipients!
“Comparative genomics of Aedes albopictus in Kwajalein Atoll for developing arbovirus vector dispersal models”
Adam Vorsino, Ph.D., Trainee
Adam Vorsino is an ecologist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in Honolulu, Hawaii. Vorsino is dually charged with both developing tools and informing conservation managers of the most appropriate methodological and scientifically valid path forward. Vorsino is currently assisting with the development and advancement of the next generation of conservation tools to manage and solve some of the region’s most intractable conservation issues.
Joanna Chiu, Ph.D., PI, University of California, Davis
Dr. Joanna Chiu is an associate professor in the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the UC Davis. The Chiu Lab leverages genomics and molecular genetics approaches to understand the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying animal physiology and behavior. The Chiu Lab also works with relevant stakeholders to develop new strategies for managing insect pests and contribute to long-term global food security and public health.
The Anastasia Mosquito Control District of St. Johns County, Florida, is collaborating with the Department of Defense Deployed Warfighter Program (DWFP) to better understand action thresholds which are used to make operational control decisions for mitigating nuisance and vector mosquitoes. The overarching goal will be to identify key thresholds used by mosquito control and preventive medicine units to understand the minimum criteria needed to develop evidence-based action thresholds for mosquito control where troops are deployed. Anastasia Mosquito Control asks for your valuable input on this subject by completing a short preliminary survey on behalf of your control program. If you have any questions about this survey or research, please feel free to contact project PI Whitney Qualls at email@example.com.
The CDC Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch is starting a new MALDI-TOF Tick ID project
The Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is partnering with various US-based and international universities and public health agencies to develop a robust, protein-based platform for identification and characterization of tick species of medical and veterinary importance, with applications for surveillance and scientific activities in the United States and other countries in the Western Hemisphere. We are currently seeking collaborators to provide recently collected (2017- present), field-caught specimens of Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Dermacentor andersoni, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes pacificus. We are requesting samples of all feeding life stages of these species from various US locations for subsequent proteomic analysis. Desired specimens should be preserved in 70-95% ethanol and stored at room temperature since the time of collection. Ideally, at least 10 specimens from each geographical location are requested.
Vector-Borne Disease Centers of Excellence 5-Part Seminar Series
We are excited to announce this 5-part seminar series hosted by the Regional Centers of Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases! Seminars will be held the last Thursday of each month, highlighting applied research projects completed through our programs across the US. The next session is scheduled for Thursday, March 25, 2021, with "Building the VBD Force" from 11:30 AM to 1:00 PM PDT!
Public Health Communication Online Training Seminar Series - Register by March 19th!
Interested in being a more effective, strategic communicator? Attend this interactive, free online training series led by a public health and strategic communication expert! Course led by Dr. Amelia Greiner Safi of the Cornell Master of Public Health Program & Department of Communication.
When: Every-other Wednesday from 12:00 - 1:30 EST on March 24, April 7, April 21, May 5
Virtual Seminar Series on Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
The Centers for Research in Emerging Infectious Disease (CREID) is hosting a virtual seminar series every second Tuesday of the month starting January 2021. Register in advance for this webinar series!
New Jersey Mosquito Control Association, 108th Annual Meeting (Virtual)
The New Jersey Mosquito Control Association will be hosting the 2021 Annual Meeting Virtually this year on March 17 & 18, 2021. The deadline for Poster Submissions has been extended until February 19, 2021. If you have an interesting project, research or innovation you would like to share as a poster please submit a Call for Posters before the February 19 deadline. Online registrationis now open on the NJMCA website.
Web-based Global Directory of Medical Entomology Courses
TDR has supported the development of a Global Atlas of Medical Entomology Schooling (GAMES), which lists a total of 126 medical entomology courses offered both on-campus and through distance learning in 32 countries across all WHO regions, covering seven languages. The freely available directory was developed in collaboration with the GVH and ARCTEC at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), following the mapping of courses available globally. WHO’s Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases and the WHO Global Malaria Programme have also reviewed the directory and provided recommendations. For each course, session dates, course outline, fees, language of instruction and responsible managers are listed. REGISTERLEARN MORE
Online Training in Vector Surveillance
Learn to develop an effective vector surveillance program, collect data, and communicate risk with the Cornell Entomology Department and eCornell in the newest online course Vector-Borne Diseases Surveillance. Take this 3-week instructor-led course with Dr. Laura Harrington and learn best practices to implement vector surveillance, data, and reporting methods. The next offering of the course is scheduled to begin April 2021.
Annual Biology of Vector-Borne Diseases six-day course
The Center for Health in the Human Ecosystem is hosting the third annual Biology of Vector-borne Diseases six-day course. This six-day course, offered through the University of Idaho, is both lecture- and discussion-based and is delivered by internationally recognized experts, with integrated case studies of emerging vector-borne pathogens. The course registration fee includes housing, meals, course materials and social activities. Registration will be due following acceptance into the course.
When: Sunday through Friday, June 20-25, 2021 Registration fee: $1,500 USD
4th PacVec Annual Meeting 2021 recordings are now available!
Thank you to all of you who joined us for our recent annual meeting! We recently sent an email to all attendees with the links to the recorded sessions. If you would like to receive a link to the recorded presentations, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Also send us an email with your photo if you attended the meeting and would like to be added to the group image on the right!
Learn about ticks on the PacVec website!
Interested in learning more about ticks and how you can protect yourself from tick bites? Check out the PacVec website! PacVec recently published tick web pages that identifies both hard and soft tick species that pose health risks for both humans and animals in the Pacific Southwest. On our website, you can read up on where key tick species live, pathogens that they can spread, and their life cycles and hosts. Tick bite prevention and tick removal resources can also be found on our website, along with links to great information from our regional public-health partners. Check them out now:
In collaboration with partners at the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California, PacVec CoE has produced new training videos providing an overview of resistance testing for larval mosquitoes. The videos discuss the rationale for monitoring resistance in mosquitoes, an overview of dose responses and how the dose response changes as resistance to larvicides evolves in a mosquito population, the different types of larval mosquito control agents, the supplies needed for carrying out bioassays, bioassay set-up and making stock solutions of control agents, and interpreting the bioassay results. See the videos and related materials at https://pacvec.us/resources/.
Larval Mosquito Resistance Testing Videos:
Need bottle bioassay testing?
If you have mosquito (Aedes or Culex) samples to be tested for insecticide resistance, PacVec is providing testing and training services at no charge, and all results will be returned to you. Dr. Anton Cornel's laboratory is leading this activity and organizing various regional training workshops on bottle bioassay testing. If you are interested, please contact us right away at email@example.com arrange for shipment and timing of the testing.
Current situation with PacVec resistance testing
The Kearney Center has transitioned to remote work as a precaution due to the COVID-19 outbreak. This means any requested insecticide resistance testing or workshops will need to wait until normal activities resume. Dr. Anton Cornel and Katherine Brisco will still be available to offer resistance testing support and guidance at this time through email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or teleconferencing.
Vector Control and Public Health Agencies Need Summer Interns for 2020, or Just Help Advertising Positions for Students?
Please contact us anytime if your agency has seasonal positions that may be of interest to undergraduate students in the Pacific Southwest region. Such positions are important formative experiences for students, and they are excellent opportunities to raise awareness of career opportunities in vector-borne diseases. These can be simple job postings that we will advertise to our undergraduates or we can help you partner with faculty for project-based internships that involve academic credit with a faculty mentor and possible continued data analysis during the school year. If you are interested, please send us a note at email@example.com. To maximize your audience and reach the best candidates for your positions, please send us these position announcements as early as possible, ideally in January or February, before students have settled their summer plans.
The Reiskind Vector Ecology Laboratory at North Carolina State University has a research assistantship available for a doctoral or master’s student. Responsibilities would include assessing bed net material efficacy, maintaining mosquito colonies, and developing and completing an original research thesis or dissertation project on the ecology of arthropod vectors. The position is available starting in June of 2021, with enrollment as a graduate student in August of 2021. The position comes with a competitive stipend, health insurance, and tuition and fees paid. For more information, please contact Dr. Michael Reiskind or our Director of Graduate Programs, Dr. Clyde Sorenson about applying.
The University of Texas Medical Branch is seeking to fill the position, Research Associate I. This position will perform varying standardized laboratory assignments and experiments. Minimum qualifications are: Bachelor's degree in basic science or equivalent; no experience required. Experience in cellular immunology, molecular biology, microbiology, cell culture and sterile technique preferred.
The University of South Carolina Laboratory (UofSC) of Zoonotic and Vector-borne diseases is seeking a postdoctoral research associate to join the lab, starting January 2021. The successful candidate will work closely with Dr. Melissa Nolan to execute multiplex pathogen detection assays, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis on pediatric cohort samples and insect vector species. About the UofSC Laboratory of Zoonotic and Vector-borne Diseases: the laboratory focuses on the epidemiology of Spotted Fever group rickettsioses, Chagas disease, gastrointestinal parasites and emerging arboviral pathogens in the United States and Latin America.
Dr. Mike C. Wimberly is seeking an enthusiastic postdoctoral researcher to study the environmental determinants of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The position is in the Ecological and Geospatial Research and Applications in Planetary Health (EcoGRAPH) group in the Department of Geography & Environmental Sustainability at the University of Oklahoma. The postdoc will have a major role in a new NIH-funded study exploring urban landscapes, climate variability, and mosquito transmission in India. This exciting project (R01AI153444) is a collaboration with Cornell University and the University of Chicago. They will also contribute to an established project on West Nile virus forecasting across four U.S. states.
The position is available as early as May 1, 2021, although a later start date is negotiable, and will be open until filled. To apply, please send a letter of interest and a CV to Dr. Mike Wimberly at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please feel free to send an email first if you have questions about the position
Postdoctoral Research Associate, Urban Pest Management
The Urban Entomology lab at Department of Entomology, Rutgers University has an opening for a Postdoctoral Research Associate position starting in January 2021. Primary responsibility is to conduct applied research in urban pest management. Current projects include house mouse and cockroach management research in apartment buildings. The secondary responsibility is to collaborate with the pest control industry to design, execute, and summarize bioassays. Requires a PhD in area of Entomology or closely related field. Visit the page of Dr. Changlu Wangto learn more about this position and how to apply.
The positions below are excellent summer opportunities for interested students. The vector control assistant position will involve a combination of field research and data analysis. The social media internship will involve developing and creating engaging and creative social media and digital media content. The start and end dates are flexible, and the specific job duties will be determined in consultation with the applicant based on skills and common interests with the District.
A full-length work term for interns would start in May and end in October which generally corresponds to our mosquito season. The greatest need of the District for this position is from June through August. Well-qualified or returning employees in this position may be granted flexibility in work term, if necessary, provided it does not compromise District operations or goals. The specific timing of all work schedules and terms will be dictated by environmental conditions and the needs of the District.
The Midwest Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Disease is pleased to offer paid research fellowships to students and emerging professionals interested in the field of vector-borne disease during summer 2021. For approximately twelve weeks during the summer, MCE-VBD fellows will work directly on projects at partner institutions located across five Midwestern states, conducting research and/or surveillance related to tick and mosquito-borne disease under the supervision of academic and public health experts. Applicants must be located in the Midwest. If you have questions about the fellowship, contact Danielle Smith, MCE-VBD Center Coordinator, at 608-265-4741 or email@example.com.
Thermacell Repellents, Inc. designs, manufactures, and markets area mosquito repellents and other arthropod management solutions globally. TRI, founded in 1999 and based in Bedford, MA, uses proprietary portable fuel or rechargeable battery technology to disperse spatial repellents. Thermacell intends to be at the forefront of spatial repellent technology and so is seeking a biologist that can lead efforts to understand and improve product efficacy. This role will represent TRI biological science and manage product performance globally.
Salary: $70,000 - $100,000 per year Location: TBD, US Application posted: 02/15/2021
Merced County Mosquito Abatement District is recruiting for the position, Vector Ecologist. This position, under the general direction of the General Manager and direct supervision of the Operational Services Supervisor, is a mid-level position that performs mosquito and vector-borne disease surveillance. Examples of work include; deploying and collecting various mosquito traps throughout Merced County, mosquito species identification, data entry, blood sampling from sentinel chickens and general biology. Must be able to communicate effectively with the public. Participates in the District’s education campaign.
Salary: $4,255.33 - $5,177.47 per month Location: Merced, CA Application due: 03/15/2021
Grant County Mosquito Control District 1 is recruiting for a Vector Ecologist. This position, under the general direction of the District Manager and direct supervision of the Assistant Manager, is a mid-level position that performs mosquito and vector-borne disease surveillance along with the supervision of truck ULV adulticide applications.If you would like an application for employment or more information, please contact District Manager, Ann Belchik-Moser at firstname.lastname@example.org or call(509) 765-7731.
Salary: $48,000.00 per year Location: Moses Lake, WA Application posted: 02/10/2021
San Gabriel Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District is inviting applications to fill this position. The Vector Control Specialist I is trained to independently organize and execute the details of his/her daily assignments. He or she must be certified by the State of California Department of Public Health as a Mosquito Control Technician within two and one half years of employment and is responsible for scheduling inspections and operations to control vectors in his or her assigned area(s) of responsibility; evaluates conditions that may produce vectors; selects and uses appropriate measures to control vectors; operates vehicles and equipment safely, mixes, loads, and applies pesticides legally; collects and records work-related data; prepares work schedules for extra-help support staff; and works cooperatively with other staff to complete work assignments.
Salary: $22.87 - $28.59 per hour Location: West Covina, CA Application posted: 02/02/2021
Mosquito and Vector Control Specialist (2 positions open)
Butte County Mosquito & Vector Control District is recruiting for two Mosquito and Vector Control Specialists. During the warmer months of the year, under the general direction of the District Manager and Assistant Manager and direct supervision of the Regional Supervisor, the Mosquito and Vector Control Specialist (MVCS) performs vector surveillance, performs vector control operations, and provides public education within the District’s service area. The MVCS is assigned a geographic zone and/or specialized functions of a vector control agency, and performs work as required. During the cooler months of the year, the MVCS performs annual maintenance of spray equipment/machines, ATVs, vehicles, and facilities; performs personnel and equipment characterization and calibration; performs and assists with special projects; receives annual training and attends continuing education courses.
Salary: $4,149.16 - $5,839.16 per month Location: Oroville, CA Application due: Open until filled
Coachella Valley Mosquito & Vector Control District is inviting applications to fill this position. Under direction, this at-will, exempt/confidential position performs a variety of confidential and highly responsible, complex administrative duties on behalf of the General Manager and Board of Trustees; administers and coordinates District agenda, minutes and communications; serves as liaison with District General Counsel, outside agencies and general public; manages official District records and performs other related duties.
Salary: $6,180.26 - $7,887.75 per month Location: Indio, CA Application due: Open until filled
San Joaquin Mosquito & Vector Control District is recruiting for the position, District Manager. Under policy direction, to act as executive officer of the District and advisor to the Board of Trustees; to plan, organize, and direct the operations of the District; to represent the Board of Trustees and the District in its relations in the community, to manage a wide variety of complex managerial and technical vector control functions and programs; and to perform related tasks as needed. The single-role, executive-level management class is responsible for short and long range planning under the policy direction of the Board of Trustees and applicable legislative authority. The District Manager acts with a high degree of autonomy and discretion in making fiscal, operational, personnel, and program decisions under routine and emergency conditions.
Salary: $140,000.00 or more per year (commensurate with experience) Location: San Joaquin County, CA Application due: Open until filled
Antelope Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District is seeking applications to fill this position. The District Manager is the Executive Officer of the District and for the Board of Trustees. They are administrator for the District and have exclusive management and control of the operations and works of the District, subject to approval by the Board of Trustees. District Manager provides day-to-day leadership for the District, and has general charge, responsibility and control over all property of the District. District Manager attends all meetings of the District’s Board and such other meetings as the Board specifies from time to time.
Salary: $80,000 - $100,000 per year Location: Lancaster, CA Application due: 03/31/2021
Clarke is recruiting for the position, Operations Manager. Working closely with the Director, the Operations Manager is responsible for cultivating a culture of performance based accountability, leadership and team building within the mosquito operations team while partnering closely with sales, customer care and other departments to help accomplish the vision of the mosquito operations team and prepare for organizational and departmental growth. He/she should also have a keen eye for safety as well as regulatory compliance and process improvements to ensure exceptional customer experiences.
Location: Roselle, IL Application posted: 01/12/2021
East Baton Rouge Parish Mosquito Abatement and Rodent Control is seeking applications to fill this position. The successful candidate will be expected to conduct highly responsible, professional administrative and supervisory work in directing the activities of the East Baton Rouge Parish Mosquito Abatement and Rodent Control District. Work involves responsibility for directing the planning, operation and financial management of a comprehensive program to identify and eliminate breeding areas of mosquitoes and rodents in East Baton Rouge Parish.
Salary: Commensurate with experience (range from $70,990 - 118,608 per year plus benefits) Location:Baton Rouge, LA
Under the general direction of the Assistant Manager and direct supervision of the Field or Fisheries Supervisor, this position performs inspections and control operations or other related or specialized services in an assigned crew within the Control Operations department for the Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District.
Salary: starting at $4,162.00 per month Location: Elk Grove, CA Application due: Open until filled
The Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (FMEL), Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, at the University of Florida is seeking applications to fill the position, Assistant/Associate Professor (Arbocirus Systems Genetics, Genomics, or Engineering). This is a 9-month tenure-accruing position that will be 85% research (Florida Agricultural Experiment Station) and 15% teaching (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences). Appointment at the Associate Professor level will be considered for individuals with special qualifications and experience and/or demonstrable research productivity and funding record. This assignment may change in accordance with the needs of the unit. Research duties focus on arthropod vectors of disease, particularly mosquitoes and ticks, and the pathogens they transmit with emphasis on using modern genetic engineering tools and procedures (e.g. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated transgenesis) for developing and evaluating new information and tools relevant to arbovirus system management. Tenure will accrue in the appropriate department in UF-IFAS.
Application due: 05/01/2021 (for full consideration); The position will remain open until a viable applicant pool is determined
Washington State University is seeking applications to fill this position. The position is defined as approximately 85% research, 10% formal teaching in graduate education and 5% service. The successful candidate will be expected to develop and maintain a productive, extramurally funded research program in infectious disease. Candidates with a research emphasis in immunology, parasitology, virology, or vector-borne diseases are especially encouraged to apply. As a faculty member the successful candidate will be expected to establish effective collaborations with current WSU programs and be active in the department’s graduate program, including mentoring graduate students and serving as a member of student advisory committees. The successful candidate will also be expected to be active in the academic service arena.
Salary: Commensurate with qualifications and experience Application due: 03/01/2021 (Screening of applications will begin March 1. Applications received by April 1, 2021 will be considered in the initial review process)
State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University seeks an internationally recognized expert in tick-borne diseases to apply for an Associate or Full Professor of Empire Innovation position (EIP). The successful candidate will join a growing team of collaborative and interdisciplinary infectious disease researchers within the newly established SUNY Center for Vector-Borne Diseases. This position offers a highly competitive hard-money state-line salaries and generous start-up package.
The Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology (BCH-EPP) at Mississippi State University seeks to fill a tenure-track, position in entomology at the Assistant or Associate level on the main campus in Starkville. This position will consist of 70% research and 30% Teaching. The successful applicant will also serve as the Director of the MS Entomological Museum. Applications must be submitted through the MSU employment portal. Review of applications will begin on January 4, 2021 and will continue until the position is filled.
The incumbent will serve as an Assistant or Associate Professor in the Department of PMB and as such will be responsible for teaching, research, administrative assignments, and service at the program, departmental, and university levels. He/she will be responsible for research and teaching in PMB Graduate Programs. The successful candidate is expected to teach courses in human Parasitology and Medical Zoology in both the School of Medicine and the Graduate School, serve as an academic advisor to both master’s and doctoral level students, and serve on thesis and dissertation committees for students in the School of Medicine and the Graduate School.
Location: Bethesda, MD Applications posted:09/28/2020 (Open until filled)
NEW:López-Pérez AM, Chaves A, Sánchez-Montes S, Foley P, Uhart M, Foley J et al. Diversity of rickettsiae in domestic, synanthropic, and sylvatic mammals and their ectoparasites in a spotted fever-epidemic region at the western US-Mexico border. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14027
Holcomb KM, Reiner RC, Barker CM. Spatio-temporal impacts of aerial adulticide applications on populations of West Nile virus vector mosquitoes. Parasites & Vectors. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04616-6
Qiu J, Wheeler SS, Reed M, Goodman GW, Sy ND, Gan J et al. When vector control and organic farming intersect: Pesticide residues on rice plants from aerial mosquito sprays. Sci Total Environ. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144708
Lopéz‐Perez AM, Plourde B, Smith K, Rubino F, Pascoe E, Foley J et al. Impacts of timber harvest on communities of small mammals, ticks, and tick-borne pathogens in a high-risk landscape in northern California. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa297
Brummitt SI, Kjemptrup AM, Harvey DJ, Petersen JM, Sexton C, Smith WA et al. Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi seroprevalence in California blood donors. PLOS ONE. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243950 Pascoe EL, Plourde BT, Lopéz‐Perez AM, Foley JE. Response of small mammal and tick communities to a catastrophic wildfire and implications for tick-borne pathogens. Journal of Vector Ecology. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12398
Holeva-Eklund WM, Behrens TK, Hepp CM. Systematic review: the impact of socioeconomic factors on Aedes aegypti mosquito distribution in the mainland United States. Rev Environ Health. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2020-0028
Donnelly MAP, Kluh S, Synder RE, Barker CM. Quantifying sociodemographic heterogeneities in the distribution of Aedes aegypti among California households. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008408
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