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Governor Michael Dukakis, Professor Nazli Choucri, President Vaira Vike-Freiberga, Prime Minister Zlatko, State Minister Yasuhide Nakayama, Ms. Merve Hitkok, and Mr. Andrew W. Wyckoff spoke and discussed at the first panel for AI International Accord on February 19, 2021. Pulitzer-winning journalist and former Assistant Secretary of State Douglas Frantz moderated the Panel.

Boston Global Forum is the first organization to build a framework of an international accord on Artificial Intelligence. This panel is the first of this initiative.

Governor Michael Dukakis opened the panel by expressing a message of hope. He emphasized the hope of possibility to collaborate with the new administration in the USA and hoped to return to a spirit of international collaboration.

Professor Choucri started by touching on the challenges, opportunities, and imperatives that AI poses.

  • How to establish stable principles and processes in a context that is rapidly changing
  • No longer just governments, also private sectors, NGOs and individuals
  • Figuring out what has worked best when, how and why in regards to international agreements and frameworks?
  • Lines of cleavages have not yet been drawn, it is still fluid. We have potential to find ways to cooperate and transform these cleavages 
  • Governments do not really control AI realm, there are also many private actors
  • How to regulate without dampening innovation 

She concluded by stating that the most immediate path is to take into account and connect with other constituencies that are trying to respond to AI reality as well. We need a multi-stakeholder support system.
AI Ethicist Merve Hickok emphasized the importance of building alliances and accountability structures to hold actors accountable. She further touched on the report “Artificial Intelligence and Democratic Values- AISCI 2020” by the Center for AI and Digital Policy of Michael Dukakis Institute and the importance of monitoring the activities of governments and companies.

Michael Dukakis also emphasized the need to help all countries not just the non-democratic ones. There is a new state of world affairs and new technologies are helping to spread disinformation which also strongly affects countries like the USA. There is a need for be global solutions that also help democratic countries as they are also struggling with this new state of affairs.


At a virtual meeting of G7 leaders this week, US President Joe Biden called for “rules that will govern the advance of technology and the norms of behavior in cyberspace, artificial intelligence, and biotechnology,” that will “lift people up” and not pin them down. Biden also urged the G7 nations to stand up for democratic values. ”The G7 Leaders Statement, presented at an event hosted at the Munich Security Conference,  further emphasized democratic values as the countries meet to counter the pandemic and to build back better.
In recent years, the G7 (and also the G20) has been a launchpad for new AI initiatives. At the 2018 G7 Summit in Quebec, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and French President Emmanuel Macron proposed a joint international initiative for ethical AI that became the Global Partnership on AI. GPAI’s 15 founding members are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Slovenia, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union. They were joined by Brazil, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain in December 2020.
Also, speaking to the G20 nations in Osaka in 2019, German Chancellor Angela Merkel called for comprehensive regulation for artificial intelligence. "It will be the job of the next Commission to deliver something so that we have regulation similar to the General Data Protection Regulation that makes it clear that artificial intelligence serves humanity,”  Chancellor Merkel said.  Following the G20, but prior to the pandemic, incoming European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen wrote that “In my first 100 days in office, I will put forward legislation for a coordinated European approach on the human and ethical implications of artificial intelligence.” President von der Leyen later proposed a Transatlantic Agreement on AI at an event hosted by the Michael Dukakis Institute in December 2020. And at the Munich Security Conference, von der Leyen again emphasized a “digital economy rulebook” that is “valid worldwide. A set of rules based on our values: human rights and pluralism, inclusion and the protection of privacy.”
This year, the G7 Leaders Summit takes place in the UK in June 2021. The G20 Summit takes place in Rome in October 2021. The Michael Dukakis Institute has previously advised the G7 leaders about emerging technology policy issues, including cybersecurity and artificial intelligence. Also, the CAIDP report Artificial Intelligence and Democratic Values proposed that implementation of the G20 AI Principles (which are based on the OECD AI Principles) should be one of the twelve metrics to measure progress toward trustworthy and human-centric AI. Additional metrics in the CAIDP report include compliance with international human rights standards, opportunities for public participation in AI policymaking, and algorithmic transparency.

In related news, this week the US National Security Commission on AI released a draft final report. An earlier assessment from the CAIDP, CAIDP Update 1.14 (Oct. 12, 2020), raised concerns about the absence of public participation in the work of the US AI Commission. A more complete assessment from CAIDP will be published soon.

Marc Rotenberg, Director
Center for AI and Digital Policy at the Michael Dukakis Institute
The Center for AI and Digital Policy, founded in 2020, advises governments on technology policy.


This week in The History of AI at - in 1967 Marvin Minsky was quoted saying, “Within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved.”

Similar to H. A. Simon’s writings from the same era, Minsky’s prediction was stated in his work in the 60s, after the bloom of AI development in the advent of the Dartmouth Conference. Optimism was running high, and advocates and academics for AI envisioned a romantic vision of what it could be. However, his prediction did not come to fruition, as AI development suffered stagnations and the like, most notably the first AI Winter, whose beginnings ironically was contributed to by Minsky himself.

Marvin Minksy was an important pioneer in the field of AI. He penned the research proposal for the Dartmouth Conference, which coined the term “Artificial Intelligence”, and he was a participant in it when it was hosted the next summer. Minsky would also co-founded the MIT AI labs, which went through different names, and the MIT Media Laboratory. In terms of popular culture, he was an adviser to Stanley Kubrick’s acclaimed movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. He won the Turing Award for his impact on AI in 1969.

As with Herbert Simon, this quote was an event in the history of AI due to its display of the sentiments of optimism of the time. Furthermore, Marvin Minsky was one, if not the, most important figure in the development of Artificial Intelligence. His predictions about AI during its rise in the 60s are still discussed about to this day.


State Minister Yasuhide Nakayama: spoke on national security threats that coincide with technology and that there is a need for AI ethics, policies, which the Japanese government has taken into account in their national strategy. He emphasized the importance of deepening the mutual understanding of AI ethics, policies and development. He concerns about lacking international relations in AI, and raised needed of AI International Accord, and confirmed Japan government will contribute and support for an International Accord on Artificial Intelligence.

Prime Minister Zlatko Lagumdzija said that in order to implement new ideas on AI there needs to be cooperation as well as global governance. Learning from history is a key point in this area. Using the history of atomic energy on a global level could provide useful insights for the development of global governance of AI. There needs to a leadership call like there was by Eisenhower for an atomic energy agency. He continued by proposing an inclusive international organization for AI that could be part of the UN and would be based on a multi-stakeholder approach.
A video of their contributions can be found here:


President Vaira Vike-Freiberga, World Leader for Peace and Cybersecurity Award gave a broad overview of the essential concerns that face us in connection with an AI International Accord. Some principles or guidelines for the strongest nations should be developed - civil society needs to continue to have a voice and think tanks like the MDI should work towards a new Social Contract to insure this. Furthermore, the general economy and human rights are two main concerns in regards to AI. The awareness and interest of society needs to be captured to invoke long term thinking in regards to AI.

Professor Choucri started by touching on challenges, opportunities and imperatives that AI poses.


  • How to establish stable principles and processes in a context that is rapidly changing
  • No longer just governments, also private sectors, NGOs and individuals
  • Figuring out what has worked best when, how and why in regards to international agreements and frameworks?
  • Lines of cleavages have not yet been drawn, it is still fluid. We have potential to find ways to cooperate and transform these cleavages
  • Governments do not really control AI realm, there are also many private actors
  • How to regulate without dampening innovation 

She ended by stating that the most immediate path is to take into account and connect with other constituencies that like us are trying to respond to AI reality, that we need a multi-stakeholder support system.


As the place to host online significant and prestigious events, on February 19, 2021, the AIWS Palace at AIWS City hosted its first Panel for AI International Intelligence (AIIA).

The preeminent speakers present were Governor Michael Dukakis;  former Latvian and Club de Madrid President Vaira Vike-Freiberga; former Prime Minister of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Zlatko Lagumdzija; Japanese State Minister Yasuhide Nakayama; Professor Nazli Choucri, MIT; Merve Hitkok, the founder of AIEthicist and one of 100 Brilliant Women in AI Ethics 2021; and Andrew W. Wyckoff, the Director of the OECD’s Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI).

The moderator of the Panel for AI International Accord was Douglas Frantz, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, author, and former Deputy Secretary-General of the OECD. Frantz served as Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs in the Obama administration.


The move AI 2.0 is being driven by five areas of AI advancement, according to a new report from analyst firm Forrester.

“Though you’ve likely never heard of them, these AI 2.0 advances are already entering commercial products, and forward-looking enterprises need to start preparing if they want to reap their competitive advantages,” the report stated.

The first advancement is transformer networks, which are multitasking deep learning models that can be used in problems that have a time or context dimension, such as understanding and generating text or code. It is currently in use in hyper scalers by AWS, Google, IBM, and Microsoft, and by speech and text analytics companies.

The second is synthetic data that is created in simulated virtual environments. This simulated data can be used to create or augment existing training data. Forrester believes synthetic data can be used to accelerate the development of new AI solutions, improve the accuracy of AI models, and protect sensitive data. It is currently being used in autonomous vehicles, financial services, insurance and pharmaceutical firms, and computer vision vendors.

Reinforcement learning is another advancing area of AI that is used to create models that optimize many objectives or constraints, or decide an action based on feedback. It is currently being used by firms dealing with marketing tasks, manufacturing tasks, and robotic learning. 

The fourth area, highlighted by Forrester in the report, is federated learning, which is a process for combining models that are trained on separate data sets. It can be used to share information between devices, systems, and companies to overcome privacy, bandwidth, and computational limits, Forrester explained. Currently, federated learning is being leveraged in hyper scalers, AI application vendors, and consumer electronics companies.

The final new emerging AI area is causal inference, which helps determine cause-and-effect relationships. It can be used to obtain business insights and prevent bias by providing explain ability, which Forrester notes can be just as important as prediction accuracy. It is currently being used by innovation teams for use cases such as determining how effective a treatment for a particular disease is. 

Regarding to AI and Causal Inference, Professor Judea Pearl is a distinguished pioneer for developing a theory of causal and counterfactual inference based on structural models. In 2011, Professor Pearl won the Turing Award. In 2020, Michael Dukakis Institute for Leadership and Innovation (MDI) and Boston Global Forum (BGF) also awarded Professor Pearl as World Leader in AI World Society (AIWS). At this moment, Professor Judea is a Mentor of and Head of Modern Causal Inference section, which is one of important

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